The value of Torah Sheb’al Peh
When the Torah states “an eye for an eye” it is not to be taken literally. In order to understand the meaning of these laws we need the Torah Sheb’al Peh - The Oral Law - which Hashem gave to Moshe at the same time as he gave the Torah Shebichtav– The Written Law. Torah Sheb’al Peh explains that each part of the body has a monetary value when compensating for its loss.
The discussions about these laws and how to apply them are written in the Talmud – Mishnah and Gemara. The Torah laws of compensation are used as a basis for English law to this very day.
Task 1: Read the text below:
Task 1: Read the text below
Following the revelation at Sinai, G‑d legislates a series of laws for the people of Israel. These include the laws of the indentured servant; the penalties for murder, kidnapping, assault and theft; civil laws pertaining to redress of damages, the granting of loans and the responsibilities of the “Four Guardians”; and the rules governing the conduct of justice by courts of law.
Also included are laws warning against mistreatment of foreigners; the observance of the seasonal festivals, and the agricultural gifts that are to be brought to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem; the prohibition against cooking meat with milk; and the mitzvah of prayer. Altogether, the Parshah of Mishpatim contains 53 mitzvot—23 imperative commandments and 30 prohibitions.
G‑d promises to bring the people of Israel to the Holy Land, and warns them against assuming the pagan ways of its current inhabitants.
The people of Israel proclaim, “We will do and we will hear all that G‑d commands us.” Leaving Aaron and Hur in charge in the Israelite camp, Moses ascends Mount Sinai and remains there for forty days and forty nights to receive the Torah from G‑d.